To understand ENKI and ENLIL; firstly their should be an understanding of EA. Continue reading “EA, ENLIL and ENKI”

Sumerian Texts

The debate between the Hoe and the Plough

1-6O the Hoe, the Hoe, the Hoe, tied together with thongs; the Hoe, made from poplar, with a tooth of ash; the Hoe, made from tamarisk, with a tooth of sea-thorn; the Hoe, double-toothed, four-toothed; the Hoe, child of the poor, …… bereft even of a loin-cloth (?) — the Hoe started a quarrel …… with the Plough.

7-19The Hoe having engaged in a dispute with the Plough, the Hoe addressed the Plough: “Plough, you draw furrows — what does your furrowing matter to me? You break clods — what does your clod-breaking matter to me? When water overflows you cannot dam it up. You cannot fill baskets with earth. You cannot spread out clay to make bricks. You cannot lay foundations or build a house. You cannot strengthen an old wall’s base. You cannot put a roof on a good man’s house. Plough, you cannot straighten the town squares. Plough, you draw furrows — what does your furrowing matter to me? You make clods — what does your clod-making matter to me?”

20-33The Plough addressed the Hoe: “I am the Plough, fashioned by great strength, assembled by great hands, the mighty registrar of father Enlil. I am mankind’s faithful farmer. To perform my festival in the fields in the harvest month, the king slaughters cattle and sacrifices sheep, and he pours beer into a bowl. The king offers the …… libation. The ub and ala drums resound.
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The king takes hold of my handles, and harnesses my oxen to the yoke. All the great high-ranking persons walk at my side. All the lands gaze at me in great admiration. The people watch me in joy.

34-40″The furrow tilled by me adorns the plain. Before the stalks erected by me in the fields, the teeming herds of Cakkan kneel down. In performing my labour amid the ripened barley, (1 ms. adds 2 lines: I vie with the mighty scythe (?). After the reaped …… and the grain have been gathered,) the shepherd’s churn is improved. With my sheaves spread over the meadows the sheep of Dumuzid are improved.

41-51″My threshing-floors punctuating the plain are yellow hillocks radiating beauty. I pile up stacks and mounds for Enlil. I amass emmer and wheat for him. I fill the storehouses of mankind with barley. The orphans, the widows and the destitute take their reed baskets and glean my scattered ears. People come to drag away my straw, piled up in the fields. The teeming herds of Cakkan thrive.

52-56″Hoe, digging miserably, weeding miserably with your teeth; Hoe, burrowing in the mud; Hoe, putting its head in the mud of the fields, spending your days with the brick-moulds in mud with nobody cleaning you, digging wells, digging ditches, digging ……!

57-62″Wood of the poor man’s hand, not fit for the hands of high-ranking persons, the hand of a man’s slave is the only adornment of your head. You deliver deep insults to me. You compare yourself to me. When I go out to the plain, everyone looks on but (2 mss. add 1 line: the Hoe does not …… the Plough, and) insultingly you call me “Plough, the digger of furrows”.”

63-66Then the Hoe addressed the Plough: “Plough, what does my being small matter to me, what does my being exalted matter to me, what does my being powerful matter to me? — at Enlil’s place I take precedence over you, in Enlil’s temple I stand ahead of you.

67-75″I build embankments, I dig ditches. I fill all the meadows with water. When I make water pour into all the reed-beds, my small baskets carry it away. When a canal is cut, or when a ditch is cut, when water rushes out at the swelling of a mighty river, creating lagoons on all sides (?), I, the Hoe, dam it in. Neither south nor north wind can separate it.

76-79″The fowler gathers eggs. The fisherman catches fish. People empty bird-traps. Thus the abundance I create spreads over all the lands.

80-90″After the water has been diverted from the meadows and the work on the wet areas is taken in hand, Plough, I come down to the fields before you. I initiate the opening up of the field for you. I clear the recesses of the embankment for you. I remove the weeds in the field for you. I heap up the stumps and the roots in the field for you. But when you work the field, there is a procession (?): your oxen are six, your people four — you yourself are the eleventh ……. …… the preparatory work in the field. And you want to compare yourself with me?

91-103″When you come out to the field after me, your single furrow brings you pleasure. When you put your head to work and get entangled in roots and thorns, your tooth breaks. Once your tooth is fixed, you cannot hold onto your tooth. Your farmer calls you “This Plough is done for”. Carpenters have to be hired again for you, people …… for you. A whole workshop of artisans surrounds you. The fullers depilate a …… fleece for you. They stretch it over the wringer for you. They toil at the straps for you — then they place the foul hide on your head.

104-108″Your work is slight but your behaviour is grand. My time of duty is twelve months, but your effective time is four months and your time of absence is eight months — you are gone for twice as long as you are present.

109-116″Upon your boat (?) you make a hut. When you are put on board and your “hands” rip out the beams, your “face” has to be pulled from the water like a wine-jar. After I have made a pile of logs (?) my smoke dries you out in the house. What happens to your seeding-funnel if it once falls? Anyone who drops you smashes it, making it a completely destroyed tool.

117-121″I am the Hoe and I live in the city. No one is more honoured than I am. I am a servant following his master. I am one who builds a house for his master. I am one who broadens the cattle-stalls, who expands the sheepfolds.

122-126″I spread out clay and make bricks. I lay foundations and build a house. I strengthen an old wall’s base. I put a roof on a good man’s house. I am the Hoe, I straighten the town-squares.

127-131″When I have gone through the city and built its sturdy walls, have made the temples of the great gods splendid and embellished them with brown, yellow and decorative (?) clay, I build in the city of the palace where the inspectors and overseers live.

132-138″When the weakened clay has been built up and the fragile (?) clay buttressed, they refresh themselves when the time is cool in houses I have built. When they rest on their sides by a fire which a hoe has stirred up, you do not come to the joyous celebration (?). They feed the labourer, give him drink and pay him his wages: thus I have enabled him to support his wife and children.

139-141″I make a kiln for the boatman and heat pitch for him. By fashioning magur and magilum boats for him, I enable the boatman to support his wife and children.

142-150″I plant a garden for the householder. When the garden has been encircled, surrounded by mud walls and the agreements reached, people again take up a hoe. When a well has been dug, a water lift constructed and a water-hoist hung, I straighten the plots. I am the one who puts water in the plots. After I have made the apple-tree grow, it is I who bring forth its fruits. These fruits adorn the temples of the great gods: thus I enable the gardener to support his wife and children.

151-158″After I have worked on the watercourse and the sluices, put the path in order and built a tower there on its banks, those who spend the day in the fields, and the field-workers who match them by night, go up into that tower. These people revive themselves there just as in their well-built city. The water-skins I made they use to pour water. I put life into their hearts again.

159-162″Insultingly you call me “Plough, the digger of ditches”. But when I have dug out the fresh water for the plain and dry land where no water is, those who have thirst refresh themselves at my well-head.

163-173″What then does one person say to another? What does one tell another in detail?: “The shepherd adorns the plain with his ewes and lambs. After the heavens had been turned upside down, after bitter lament had been imposed on Sumer, after, as houses were overwhelmed by the rivers and Enlil frowned in anger upon the land, Enlil had flooded the harvest, after Enlil had acted mightily thus, Enlil did not abandon us — the single-toothed Hoe was struck against the dry earth.

174-178A “”For us you raise winter like the harvest-time. We take away the hand of summer and winter. Hoe, the binder, ties the sheaves. Binding bird-traps, it ties the reed-baskets. The solitary labourer and the destitute are supported. (2 mss. add 1 line: They glean the scattered ears.)”

179-185Then the Storm spoke: “The mortar lies still while the pestle pounds. People fight with grinding stones. The sieve disputes with the strainer. What have you done to the one who is angry? Why are you scornful of Ezina? Why do you swap names (?) over the ripened grain (1 ms. has instead: Why, Plough, is the ripened grain in your seeding-funnel)?”

186-193Enlil adressed the Hoe: “Hoe, do not start getting so mightily angry! Do not be so mightily scornful! Is not Nisaba the Hoe’s inspector? Is not Nisaba its overseer? The scribe will register your work, he will register your work. Hoe, whether he enters five or ten gij in your account, Hoe — or, Hoe, whether he enters one-third or one-half mana in your account, Hoe, like a maid-servant, always ready, you will fulfil your task.”

194-196The Hoe having engaged in a dispute with the Plough, the Hoe triumphed over the Plough — praise be to Nisaba!

Sumerian Texts

The debate between the Date Palm and the Tamarisk

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1-10The Tamarisk opened his mouth and spoke. He addressed the Date Palm: “My body …… the bodies of the gods. (The reference is to statues of tamarisk wood.) You grow your fruits but someone places them before me like a maid approaching her mistress. You do not provide the measuring vessels. You are …… minor crops, but I ……. Your attendants …… before me for you.”

11-19In his anger the Date Palm answered him. He addressed his brother the Tamarisk: “You say: “If people build daises for me and beautify them too, they certainly do not swear by the gods before clay (?).” — You may be the body of the gods in their shrines and people may name with a good name the daises of the gods, but it is silver that can pride itself as the overlay of the gods. ……, describe your beauty!”
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Sumerian Texts

The debate between Silver and Copper

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(Silver (?) speaks:) “Powerful with huge arms, does he have any rival? He walks carrying the precious hammer stone and anvil stone. He can create …… and thus make it larger — ……, a brother, is your right arm; ……, a mother (?), is your left (?). He has created ……; let him show it off. Constantly digging ……, let him accumulate goods. After exalted …… conceived (?) him, after …… like a breast, after …… towards the abzu, …… to the edge of the horizon, may …… bring …… for you. After …… made …….”
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52-72 (Copper speaks:) “Mounds and wells ……. My harrow ……. Levelling all the mounds ……, Strong Copper directs (?) the way. A dragon ……. Strong Copper …… the fields. Turbulent waters …… ewes. Strong Copper …… the mighty waters.” Enlil …….
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Silver …… Strong Copper ……
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81-90Enlil …… called for his minister Nuska: “My minister, Nuska!” (Nuska answered:) “Always at your service!” (Enlil replied:) “Strong Copper …… the throne and serves — let him sit in his …….” He had barely finished speaking thus to him, when Nuska and the minister’s retinue went together to …… and said to Strong Copper “Come in!” Then Strong Copper clasped against his chest the labours of his huge arms, the abundance of heaven and earth, as an offering and a gift.

91-98But Silver too held against his chest the goats, bulls and sheep he had slaughtered. Not planting trees in the ……, Silver …… silver in silver pieces ……. After him, he …… his famous ……, very good things, to Strong Copper on his neck. Silver …… an old reed box. He put …… inside it. Silver …… silver in small pieces …….

99-128Against Strong Copper, the strong heir of Father Enlil, he hurled vile insults, and cast vile curses: “The porters with their arms tied to their work; the potter, digging the hoe in the ground, for days on end extracting the clay with his hands; the …… worker from daybreak in a pit unfit for washing or bathing; the shipbuilder, caulking a boat, heating up fish oil, with garments not easy to clean; the cook, heating up oil, carrying …… water, standing by like a witness; the brewer, who does not untie his belt in warm weather, whose hands do not dry the clay; the maltster, never resting in winter, ……; the nest hunter, (?) spreading the nets, working in hollows; the barber, cutting the growth, removing the flourishing roots; the freight waggon oxen shaking their heads; the donkeys submitting their necks to the yoke, ……, carrying firewood; …….”
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The oven …… warm food.
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(Silver speaks:) “…… one who neither …… foundations nor erects reed fences. Get out! You wander about ……. But my assigned task is in houses, in …… and at banquets.” Silver did not …… in the …… which he had ……. He spoke this way in the matter of the …… strength.

15-18Then Strong Copper, the warrior of heaven (?), kept his body firm, and did not take ……; he did not show hate, but kept quiet (?). He kept his neck firm, and did not ……. He …… his rejoicing face to the gods.

19-27Strong Copper …… and addressed the Anuna gods: “Ninsumun, the woman of all the destinies, …… generously. The speech ……, …… wisdom, forgetting (?) ……, ……, pulling it out like a root, ……, …… my counsellor ……, …… the house’s fire before Enlil, I will …… warm water …….

28-34Strong Copper answered Silver: “Silver, to make lead shine (?) is not an important achievement. Restitution (?) according to the tablets does not do the work of Copper. A hand without a wrist cannot (?) work. A weak neck carries nothing, does not …… a thing to a load. A heart ……, mankind ……. No one …… a boat with bitumen …… in the river.”
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1-12 (Copper speaks:)
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…… the oil jar, …… trap that ties someone up, …… all full of lies, …… his hand bringing taxes, …… erasing restitutions (?), …… people are deceived. A …… organised by you goes to the desert, ……. No one should put in a dwelling a …… by you. A …… by you should not make grain grow with the labours of the soil. It should not fill the silos with grain, it makes no one rejoice. It should not fill the hairy sacks with grain.

13-21″No king should ride on a barge built by you. No one should carry things from afar on a trip in a chariot of yours. In the palace, no one should place on a table your edible ……. No young man of …… should be pleased by …… your soil (?). No …… of assorted woods or fine oils from you should stand on the streets. You should not work with wood, you should not work with reeds!”
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1-5 (Copper speaks:) “…… the heavens were separated from the earth, there was no drinking water ……. In order that the people should eat food ……, my father Enlil created me in a single day, and then the Tigris charged like a great wild bull.

6-11″At that time, your feet did not move, and you did not walk around. In the …… of Enlil, not separated from the ……, you got up, and you moved your feet toward his house. They cut you to pieces with the strength provided by me. Someone opens …… there with the abundance I give to the population.

12-17″Silver, consider the palace! …… finds the time right, according to the turning starry sky, (and says:) “Come on! You will perform the work of your arms, you will help Enlil.” But you stick out a long tongue like a kid to a goat so that everybody can see. Indoors, the palace is your station and banquets are your assigned task (you say). — Silver, I will demonstrate to you that the palace is neither your station nor your dwelling.

18-23″Men caulk tiny, very strong boxes for you, as they do a boat. They cover you over with their oldest rags, and someone digs a hole for you in the middle of the cattle-pen. Or they pour clay on top of you, as on a jar with a sealed mouth, and then, in the darkest place inside the house, someone buries you in the most obscure corner of a grave.

24-37″When the time of wet ground has arrived for me, you do not supply the copper hoes that chop weeds, so no one concerns themselves with you. When sowing time has arrived for me, you do not supply the copper adzes that make ploughs, so no one concerns themselves with you. When winter time has arrived for me, you do not supply the copper axes that chop firewood, so no one concerns themselves with you. When harvest time has arrived for me, you do not supply the copper sickles that reap grain, so no one concerns themselves with you. For your harvest or winter, you do not supply the copper adzes and chisels which build houses, not even a female lamb, so no one concerns themselves with you.

38-46″Silver, you are forgotten in the soil inside the house. A scared mouse in a silent house, …… — Silver, the palace is not your station! An obscure place, a grave, such is your station. Silver, banquets are not your assigned task — fasting is your assigned task. Silver, to make lead shine (?) is not an important achievement. The task of making divine statues is not likely to fall within your capabilities. Why do you keep attacking me like a dog? You snake, get back in the darkest part of the house and lie down in your grave!”

47-51Strong Copper cast his legitimate insults against Silver, and was full of hate against him — insults of a miserable dog, like water from a brackish well. He exerted his powers against him to harass him. And at this, Silver felt thoroughly harassed; it did not befit his dignity.

52-59Silver answered Strong Copper: “You do not give blades to the …… wooden hoe that breaks the …… ground. The wooden …… tool mixes the clay (?) ……; wedges are not written by you. The wooden shovels pile up the sheaves — match your measuring devices to the measuring stick! Just approach the cargo boat that …… the canal banks, just keep knocking on the great door of the house at night! The stonecutter wrestles with stones and with beads — they are too hard and he has to stop because of you. Work away with your tines at the dirt by the oven instead!

60-66″You have accumulated lies about my honourable station. Let me, the mouse, do his work — his assigned task in the ground is noble. Your teeth dig the ground, your tongue (?) moves the dirt. The copper hoe has its digging taken over by the wooden hoe in the harder ground. The copper sickles need to have the hard weeds burned. The copper axes which chop trees, stripping and pulling out tamarisks and ash shrubs, have their blades dulled. The copper saws have to lie down for a rest beside the mountain trees.

67-84″When you keep hitting the soil, like someone falling from a roof; when they carry (?) you out from the big brambles and …… thorns, like a dog with a ……, as if they were catching a thief at midnight; when the great, turbulent waters, regularly, yearly (?), fill the desert; when they carry the grain from the dry ground to the canal banks; when they carry the sesame from the furrows to the canal banks; when they carry to the …… red onions, white onions, edible bulbous leeks (?) and turnips flourishing in the furrows; when they transport the salt and spice seeds lying at the edges of the fields; when they feed the various grains to cattle and sheep; when they bring …… to the pigs born at the fattener’s; when they feed dough to the porcupine’s litter; when they crush coarse flour for the huge wild boars, straight-tailed fish, il (?) fish, carp, fish with bellies (?), giraba fish laying their eggs in large amounts in the shallows (?), gurgal birds, suda birds, large u birds from the middle of the sea, eggs of geese and all kinds of birds, all the good things which thrive in the desert …….
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Strong Copper ……. I shall give small one-shekel pieces of silver; you should …… 3 or 4 minas. If he turns his attention to the development of humanity, small 5- or 10-mina peces of silver ……
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The captain …… the role of overseer.
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small 5- or 10-mina peces of silver ……
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of Enlil ……. Small ten-shekel pieces of silver ……
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…… in aromatic oil of cedar ……. …… humans, the black-headed people. Let him anoint each with my …… aromatic oil of cedar. …… it is an abomination to my king.
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…… for my father Enlil.
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Silver and Strong Copper having carefully had a debate, Strong Copper had the lead over Silver in Enlil’s house — Father Enlil be praised!

13-29Then the days passed, the year grew long, the silos filled up and flax was beaten ……. The year, the faraway days, ……. The heavens …… stars and lengthening shadows. …… the shadows ……. The stars of heaven …… did not ……. The records, to be found in the sacred tablets of the stars, ……. The heavens, ……, having been separated from the earth …….
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30-36Enlil joyfully addressed Sumer. In a …… of abundance he raised …… to the duties of shepherd. In order to build the …… of Enlil, to bring forth the houses of the great gods, to raise the banks of the levees and ditches, Enlil gave strength to the shepherd Ur-Namma in his majestic arms.

37-44On Ur-Namma receiving …… and kingship, after he …… a good ……, Strong Copper helped him mightily. With it, the shepherd Ur-Namma …… in great amounts. With it, he …… the great temple of Suen in Urim. With it, he …… the E-kur, the house of Enlil in Nibru. He made famous the houses of the great gods, and raised high the banks of the levees and ditches.

45-58Under him, his city ……. Under him, wool ……. Under him, oil ……. Under him, the people eat excellent food. Ur-Namma …… broad wisdom. Strong Copper …… great ……. When raising ……, he ……. He called the one giving …… as his …… singer. The …… of bright ……. He investigated the …… of Strong Copper. …… their helpers. In order to build his ……. Not neglecting …….
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Sumerian Texts

The debate between Bird and Fish

1-12In those ancient days, when the good destinies had been decreed, and after An and Enlil had set up the divine rules of heaven and earth, then the third of them, ……, the lord of broad wisdom, Enki, the master of destinies, gathered together …… and founded dwelling places; he took in his hand waters to encourage and create good seed; he laid out side by side the Tigris and the Euphrates, and caused them to bring water from the mountains; he scoured out the smaller streams, and positioned the other watercourses. …… Enki made spacious sheepfolds and cattle-pens, and provided shepherds and herdsmen; he founded cities and settlements throughout the earth, and made the black-headed multiply. He provided them with a king as shepherd, elevating him to sovereignty over them; the king rose as the daylight over the foreign countries.

13-21…… Enki knit together the marshlands, making young and old reeds grow there; he made birds and fish teem in the pools and lagoons ……; he gave …… all kinds of living creatures as their sustenance, …… placed them in charge of this abundance of the gods. When Nudimmud, august prince, the lord of broad wisdom, had fashioned ……, he filled the reed-beds and marshes with Fish and Bird, indicated to them their positions and instructed them in their divine rules.

22-28Then Fish laid its eggs in the lagoons; Bird built its nest in a gap in the reed-beds. But Bird frightened the Fish of the lagoons in its ……. Fish took up a stand and cried out. Grandiosely it initiated hostilities. It roused the street by quarrelling in an overbearing manner. Fish addressed Bird murderously:

29-40″…… Bird, …… there is no insult ……! Croaking, …… noise in the marshes…… squawking! Forever gobbling away greedily, while your heart is dripping with evil! Standing on the plain, you can keep pecking away until they chase you off! The farmer’s sons lay lines and nets for you in the furrows. The gardener sets up nets against you in gardens and orchards. He cannot rest his arm from firing his sling; he cannot sit down because of you. You cause damage in the vegetable plots; you are a nuisance. In the damp parts of fields, there are your unpleasing footprints. Bird, you are shameless: you fill the courtyard with your droppings. The courtyard sweeper-boy who cleans the house chases after you with ropes. By your noise the house (1 ms. has instead: palace) is disturbed; your din drives people away.

41-53″They bring you into the fattening shed. They let you moo like cattle, bleat like sheep. They pour out cool water in jugs for you. They drag you away for the daily sacrifice. The fowler brings you with bound wings. (1 ms. adds: The fisherman brings you into the palace.) They tie up your wings and beak. Your squawking is to no profit; what are you flapping about? With your ugly voice you frighten the night; no one can sleep soundly. Bird, get out of the marshes! Get this noise of yours off my back! Go out of here into a hole on the rubbish heap: that suits you!”

51-56Thus Fish insulted Bird on that day. But Bird, with multicoloured plumage and multicoloured face, was convinced of its own beauty, and did not take to heart the insults Fish had cast at it. As if it was a nursemaid singing a lullaby, it paid no attention to the speech, despite the ugly words that were being uttered. Then Bird answered Fish: (1 ms. has instead: It …… insulted Fish; …… said ……: )

57-69″How has your heart become so arrogant, while you yourself are so lowly? Your mouth is flabby (?), but although your mouth goes all the way round, you cannot see behind you. You are bereft of hips, as also of arms, hands and feet — try bending your neck to your feet! Your smell is awful; you make people throw up, they bare their teeth at you! No trough would hold the kind of prepared food you eat. He who has carried you dares not let his hand touch his skin! In the great marshes and the wide lagoons, I am your persecuting demon. You cannot eat the sweet plants there, as my voice harasses you. You cannot travel with confidence in the river, as my storm-cloud covers you. As you slip through the reed-beds you are always beneath my eyes. Some of your little ones are destined to be my daily offering; you give them to me to allay my hunger. Some of your big ones are just as certainly destined for my banqueting hall …… in the mud.
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70-79″But I am the beautiful and clever Bird! Fine artistry went into my adornment. But no skill has been expended on your holy shaping! Strutting about in the royal palace is my glory; my warbling is considered a decoration in the courtyard. The sound I produce, in all its sweetness, is a delight for the person of Culgi, son of Enlil. Fruits and produce of gardens and orchards are the enormous daily offerings due to me. Groats, flour malt, hulled barley and emmer (?) are sweet things to my mouth. How do you not recognise my superiority from this? Bow your neck to the ground!”

80-85Thus Bird insulted Fish on that occasion. Fish became angry, and, trusting in its heroic strength and solidness, swept across the bottom like a heavy rain cloud. It took up the quarrel. It did not take to heart the insults that Bird had cast at it. It could not bring itself to submit, but spoke unrestrainedly. Again Fish replied to Bird:

86-94″Chopped-off beak and legs, deformed feet, cleft mouth, thin tongue! You clatter away in your ignorance, with never any reflection! Gluttonous, malformed, filling the courtyard with droppings! The little sweeper-boy sets nets in the house and chases you with ropes. The baker, the brewer, the porter, all those who live in the house are annoyed with you. Bird, you have not examined the question of my greatness; you have not taken due account of my nature. You could not understand my weakness and my strength; yet you spoke inflammatory words. Once you have really looked into my achievements, you will be greatly humbled. Your speech contains grave errors; you have not given it due consideration.

95-101″I am Fish. I am responsibly charged with providing abundance for the pure shrines. For the great offerings at the lustrous E-kur (1 ms. has instead: On the august platform of the great offerings of the gods), I stand proudly with head raised high! Just like Acnan I am here to satisfy the hunger of the Land. I am her helper. Therefore people pay attention to me, and they keep their eyes upon me. As at the harvest festival, they rejoice over me and take care of me. Bird, whatever great deeds you may have achieved, I will teach you their pretentiousness. I shall hand back to you in your turn your haughtiness and mendacious speech.”

102-115Thereupon Fish conceived a plot against Bird. Silently, furtively, it slithered alongside. When Bird rose up from her nest to fetch food for her young, Fish searched for the most discreet of silent places. It turned her well-built nest of brushwood into a haunted house. It destroyed her well-built house, and tore down her storeroom. It smashed the eggs she had laid and threw them into the sea. Thus Fish struck at Bird, and then fled into the waters. Then Bird came, lion-faced and with an eagle’s talons, flapping its wings towards its nest. It stopped in mid-flight. Like a hurricane whirling in the midst of heaven, it circled in the sky. Bird, looking about for its nest, spread wide its limbs. It trampled over the broad plain after its well-built nest of brushwood. Its voice shrieked into the interior of heaven like the Mistress’s.

116-121Bird sought for Fish, searching the marshes. Bird peered into the deep water for Fish, watching closely. Extending its claws, it just snatched from the water Fish’s tiny fish-spawn, gathering them all together and piling them up in a heap. Thus Bird took its revenge and …… its heart. Again Bird replied to Fish:

122-124″You utter fool! Dumb, muddle-headed Fish, you are out of ……! The mouths of those who circle (?) the quay never get enough to eat, and their hunger lasts all day. Swine, rascal, gorging yourself upon your own excrement, you freak!

125-136″You are like a watchman living on the walls (?), ……! Fish, you kindled fire against me, you planted henbane. In your stupidity you caused devastation; you have spattered your hands with blood! Your arrogant heart will destroy itself by its own deeds! But I am Bird, flying in the heavens and walking on the earth. Wherever I travel to, I am there for the joy of its …… named. ……, o Fish, …… bestowed by the Great Princes (a name for the Igigi) . I am of first-class seed, and my young are first-born young! …… walks with uplifted head …… to the lustrous E-kur. …… until distant days. …… the numerous people say. How can you not recognise my pre-eminence? Bow your neck to the ground.”

137-140Again Bird had hurled insults at Fish. Then Fish shouted at Bird, eyeing it angrily: “Do not puff yourself up from your lying mouth! Our judge shall take this up. Let us take our case to Enki, our judge and adjudicator.”

141-147And so with the two of them jostling and continuing the evil quarrel in order to establish, the one over the other, their grandness and pre-eminence, the litigation was registered within Eridug, and they put forward their argumentation (1 ms. has instead: stood there in dispute). …… thrashing about (?) amid roaring like that of a bull, …… crept forward like ……. They requested a verdict …… from King Culgi, son of Enlil.

148-157 (Bird speaks:)”You ……, lord of true speech, pay attention to my words! I had put …… and laid eggs there. …… had bestowed …… and had given as their sustenance. After …… had started ……, …… he destroyed my house. He turned my nest of brushwood into a haunted house. He destroyed my house, and tore down my storeroom. He smashed my eggs and threw them into the sea. …… examine what I have said. Return a verdict in my favour.” …… investigating……, she prostrated herself to the ground.

158-163…… announced (?) the word. …… august, spoke from the heart: “Your words are sterling words, such as delight the heart.” (Culgi speaks:) “For how long are they (1 ms. has instead: you) going to persist (?) in quarrelling?” Like …… came out supreme. Like butting ……, they jostled each other.

164-167 (Fish speaks:)”……, let it be favourable to me!” (Culgi speaks:)”I shall instruct you in the divine rules and just ordinances of our dwelling-place. Like (?) Enki, king of the abzu, I am successful in finding solutions, and am wise in words.” He answered Bird and Fish:

168-177″To strut about in the E-kur is a glory for Bird, as its singing is sweet. At Enlil’s holy table, Bird …… precedence over you ……! It shall utter its cries in the temple of the great gods. The Anuna gods rejoice at its voice. It is suitable for banquets in the great dining hall of the gods. It provides good cheer in the king’s (1 ms. has instead: Culgi’s) palace. …… with head high, at the table of Culgi, son of Enlil. The king …… long life.
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Fish …… in splendour …….

178-190Thereupon Fish …… Bird.
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…… Enki …… bestowed.
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In the abzu of Eridug …… Bird ……. Because Bird was victorious over Fish in the dispute between Fish and Bird, Father Enki be praised!

Sumerian Texts

Debate between Winter and Summer

1-11An lifted his head in pride and brought forth a good day. He laid plans for …… and spread the population wide. Enlil set his foot upon the earth like a great bull. Enlil, the king of all lands, set his mind to increasing the good day of abundance, to making the …… night resplendent in celebration, to making flax grow, to making barley proliferate, to guaranteeing the spring floods at the quay, to making …… lengthen (?) their days in abundance, to making Summer close the sluices of heaven, and to making Winter guarantee plentiful water at the quay.

12-18He copulated with the great hills, he gave the mountain its share. He filled its womb with Summer and Winter, the plenitude and life of the Land. As Enlil copulated with the earth, there was a roar like a bull’s. The hill spent the day at that place and at night she opened her loins. She bore Summer and Winter as smoothly as fine oil. He fed them pure plants on the terraces of the hills like great bulls. He nourished them in the pastures of the hills.

19-25Enlil set about determining the destinies of Summer and Winter. For Summer founding towns and villages, bringing in harvests of plenitude for the Great Mountain Enlil, sending labourers out to the large arable tracts, and working the fields with oxen; for Winter plenitude, the spring floods, the abundance and life of the Land, placing grain in the fields and fruitful acres, and gathering in everything — Enlil determined these as the destinies of Summer and Winter.

26-32By hand Winter guided the spring floods, the abundance and life of the Land, down from the edge of the hills. He set his foot upon the Tigris and Euphrates like a big bull and released them into the fields and fruitful acres of Enlil. He shaped lagoons in the water of the sea. He let fish and birds together come into existence by the sea. He surrounded all the reed-beds with mature reeds, reed shoots and …… reeds.

33-44Summer, the heroic son of Enlil, drained the large arable tracts. He …… cool water on the fields and fruitful acres like …….
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45-49Holy Winter ……. The ox …… its head in the yoke. Ninurta, Enlil’s son, …… the fruitful acres. He …… grain in the large arable tracts. He fills the fields and fruitful acres of Enlil.

50-60Winter made the ewe give birth to the lamb, he gave the kid to the goat. He made cows teem together with their calves, he provided butter and milk. On the high plain he made the deer and stag glad of heart. He made the birds of heaven set their nests in the broad spaces. The fish of the lagoons laid eggs in the reed-bed. In all the orchards he made honey and wine drip (?) to the ground. He made the trees, wherever planted, bear fruit. He established gardens and provided plants. He made grain abundant in the furrows. He made Ezina appear radiant as a beautiful maiden. The harvest, the great festival of Enlil, rose heavenward.

61-68Summer founded houses and farmsteads, he made the cattle-pens and sheepfolds wide. He multiplied the stacks of sheaves in all the arable tracts. At their edges he made …… flax …… ripen (?). He brought a plentiful harvest into the temples, he heaped up piles of grain. He founded towns and villages, he built the houses of the Land. He made the houses of the gods grow like the hills in a pure place. In E-namtila, the holy seat of kingship, fit for high daises, he established abundance for the Great Mountain Enlil.

69-88Summer, the heroic son of Enlil, decided to bring offerings to E-namtila, the house of Enlil. He brought animals, cattle and sheep of the hill, fully grown wild rams, deer and stags, …… sheep, long-fleeced barley-fed sheep, thick-tailed sheep. Pigs grown fat in the midst of the reed-beds, porcupine, tortoise, turtle, birds brooding in their nests, taken together with their eggs, harvest crops, flour and malt for mixing, butter and milk from cattle-pen and sheepfold, wheat, …… beans, small beans and large beans gathered in piled-high baskets, onions …… in their furrows, zahadin onions and shallots, seed turnips, saffron (?), ……,
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— Summer, the heroic son of Enlil, offered.

89-104Winter, lordly son of Enlil, ……, released the water of life and …… opened. He gathered the …… oxen and …… the oxen. The disputed sheep was provided, barley-fed but with a scorpion at its side. Quartz, gold and silver found in leather pouches, cedar, cypress, ……, boxwood, ……, …… tribute of the Land, figs from Mari, ……, strings of dried fruit, cool water, the tribute of the hills, …… thick honey, dida beer, ……, village ……, bibra birds, esig birds, buru-bacur birds, fattened ducks, carp, …… which Winter made grow up, large pomegranates gathered from the orchards, big bunches of grapes on high, winter cucumbers, …… empty ……, brought forth …… in the early rain, large turnips, large …… cut down with the knife (?), long leeks — Winter himself brought the tribute he had collected.

105-111Summer and Winter set about organising the animals and offerings for E-namtila, the house of Enlil. The two of them, like huge butting bulls, reared themselves triumphantly. But Winter, because his limbs had grown tired from the grain grown heavy in the furrows, and the wheat and the emmer which he had been watering by hand, turned away as from an enemy and would not draw near.

112-120Consequently Winter was overcome by anger and he started a quarrel with Summer: “Summer, my brother, you should not praise yourself; whatever harvest produce you bring as gifts to the palace has not been made by your toil: you should not brag. As if you were the one who had done the hard work, as if you had done the farming, as if you had taken care of irrigation control during the spring floods, as if you had brought forth the …… grain in the arable tracts with the dew from heaven — how much through my toil is it that you enter the palace!

121-143″Whatever animals, cattle and sheep of the hill, you bring to my …….
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Your gardener …… the palace ……. Honey and wine in the orchard ……. Its destructive hoe ……. Your gathered vegetables, the purslane, ……. Whatever you …… at the gate of the palace. In the field your arm ……. The straw of the grain you bring …….

144-152″After you have threshed it at your threshing floor, and have …… the cattle’s dung, your carrying-nets are to hand, …… bearing your straw. …… the animals, the storehouses and their contents. After your houses and farmsteads …… sheep, …… from your cattle, after …… their reed-beds, after …… green briars and cut …… thorns, …… storehouse …… the dung of unyoked oxen — the slave Summer, the duly-appointed labourer who will never rest from his toil, a hired man who has to return to the fields of the Land for his own sustenance!”

153-156On that day Winter taunted Summer. Summer, the hero whom one does not challenge, searched for rude insults. He was confident in himself, considering the harvest time, and turned aside. Like a great bull eating rich grass, he raised his head.

157-163Next, Summer replied to Winter: “Winter, you may have to stay by the side of the oven, ……; but you should not launch such serious insults against someone who does not lead a sedentary (?) life. …… for the work of tilling the Land, with its difficulties, you do not raise a cry in the gune (?) cult centre, you do not look after the house. The young scribe is neglectful, which is an abomination, and no rushes are plucked for the beds. The singer does not embellish the banquet , …… at its side.

164-171″Winter, don’t launch such insults! …… to the desert. I will make the strength of my power come forth in the house so that you recognise it. In my working term of duty, which is seven months of the year, …… does not speak softly.
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Tirelessly and constantly I place abundance upon the fields.

172-184″After they …… my seed, Winter, do not …… noise, when water is cut off from the arable tracts, when the bowls lie placed, when the fishing place has been prepared, when the fish have been piled up, I am father Enlil’s great comptroller. I harrow the fields into fruitful acres. When the oxen have stopped working the fields, when you have concentrated your efforts on the damp areas and given the sign for the field work, I do not work for you in the large arable tracts and fruitful acres early in the season. If the spring grain bends its neck in the hollow of the furrows, no one provides a fence. Whatever your farmer brings to the oxen, he will not make the oxen angry with me. Winter …… in the uplands ……. The man of the bedroom …….”

185-188Then Summer taunted Winter: “Wise ……, serious insults ……, not …….”

189-199Thereupon Winter replied to Summer: “Summer, the donkey grazing on grass at the harvest ground and braying noisily, the mule ……, the harvest ox chafing its neck in the pegs and tossing its head in the lead rope, the innkeeper going to the harvest ground carrying a bowl in his hands, the flour …… playing ……, the bragging fieldworker who does not know the extent of the field — Summer, my brother, after you have gone out boasting about my toil, when at the turn of the year grain is brought into the houses and the granaries are packed full, when you bring the surplus, your bardul garment and your niglam garment are ……. When some one gives a two mana axe to you, you go off to your steppe.

200-215″Summer, my brother, the wet spots must not be …… when tilling the field. A man from the storehouse stands in front of you and instructs you. When on the high plain …… the ash tree ……, …… yourself ……
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When tribute is brought in your freight boats ……. When the grass has arrived in the storehouse, …… before me. What will the penned sheep eat? Your …… reeds are exhausted. The reed-cutter who sets about pruning with the machete and splitting older reeds, the builder who places labourers in houses, never resting from his efforts, the potter who digs out clay, lights a fire and stokes it with wood …… the pot! Weaver, weave your bardul garment with the strength (?) of your aktum cloth. Brewer, bake your beer bread at the harvest ground as your assignment! Cook, produce great banquet loaves in summer! The building supervisor …… the …… of the roofs. People …… boots and shoes …….

216-224″Summer, my brother, as long as you go with my term of duty, great and small order you about and your string is not cut. Although you have gathered all things in the Land and filled the storehouses, in all my strength I am their owner when your limbs become tired. When the clouds have brought down the abundance of heaven, and the water of the first greening has descended from the hills, and the new grain has been put in the granary to be added to the old grain, the good farmer, having seen to his fields, shouts for joy, the carrier donkeys stand ready and he sets out confidently for the city.

225-235″My brother, when you have put the holy plough away in the barn, the storehouse, everything you have gathered, you make a roar like fire. You sit down to plentiful food and drink. You obtain the choicest goods from the Land. For my king named by Nanna, the son of Enlil, Ibbi-Suen, when he is arrayed in the cutur garment and the hursaj garment, when you have taken care of the bardul garment and the nijlam garment, when you have made a perfect feast for the gods, when the Anuna have placed garments on their holy bodies, in his E-namtila, the holy abode of kingship founded by An, at that place of content they prepare a choice banquet.

236-247″When the cem and ala drums, …… and other instruments play together for him, he passes the time with your heart-gladdening tigi and zamzam instruments. But it is I who have made the wine plentiful and made much to eat and drink. I perfect the garments with fine oil. I bring up the ……, the cutur and aktum garments. As for safeguarding, the best in Sumer, in the oppressive heat (?) of Summer, where they had been put away in the bedrooms amongst the black-headed people, moths destroy the blankets and make the aktum cloth perish because of you. …… exhausts itself for you ……. The wooden chest ……. I am Ninkasi’s help, for her I sweeten the beer, with as much cold water, the tribute of the hills, as you brought.

248-258″After …… pots, after …… pots, after the plump grapes have been laid out in the cool breeze, I make my king’s great palace …… pleasant. I am the one who cools down my king. I fill the fish-hook. My comrade, grasp your leather bag, go out ……. The farmer …… hardship. The farmer …… the rain. The gardener does not know how to plant purslane, your …… basket ……. How can you compare yourself to me while seeking a roof under which to rest?”

259-263For a second time Winter had taunted Summer. Summer, the heroic son of Enlil, was convinced of his own strong power and consequently trusted in himself. He acted as if in a friendly manner to the insults that Winter had spoken to him.

264-273Then Summer replied to Winter: “Winter, you should not boast about your superior strength after you have explained the grounds for your boasting. I shall speak about your abode in the city which I shall ……. You seem like a man of office but you are an inept one. Your straw bundles are for the oven-side, hearth and kiln. Like a herdsman or shepherd encumbered by sheep and lambs, helpless people run like sheep from oven-side to kiln, and from kiln to oven-side, in the face of you (?). In sunshine …… you reach decisions, but now in the city people’s teeth chatter because of you.

274-282″When the day is half done, nobody walks about in the streets. The servant, basking by the side of the oven, is in the house until sunset. The maid, not attending to the flow of the water-container, passes the day on garments. As for the fields not worked in winter, their furrows are not cut straight and their grain, having not been cast into a wholesome place, is taken away by huge flocks of rooks. The vegetable cutter …… does not …… those vegetables at the market. Carrying old reeds, the labourer is halt and lame. Don’t speak with a gaping mouth of your superior strength — I will make known its shape and essence.”

283-287For a second time Summer had taunted Winter. On that day of the E-kur’s festival and Sumer’s plenty, the two of them stretched (?) their legs and stood combatively. Summer and Winter, like great bulls about to tear at each other’s horns, bent forward like wild bulls in the main courtyard and took up their positions.

288-296Like a great bull Winter raised his head to speak: “Father Enlil, you gave me control of irrigation; you brought plentiful water. I made one meadow adjacent to another and I heaped high the granaries. The grain became thick in the furrows. Ezina came forth in splendour like a beautiful maiden. Summer, a bragging field-administrator who does not know the extent of the field, …… my thighs grown tired from toil. …… tribute has been produced for the king’s palace. Winter admires the heart of your …… in words.”

297-303Summer pondered everything in his head and calmed down. Summer spoke respectfully to Enlil: “Enlil, your verdict is highly valued, your holy word is an exalted word. The verdict you pronounce is one which cannot be altered — who can change it? There was quarrelling of brother with brother but now there is harmony. For as long as you are occupying the palace, the people will express awe. When it is your season, far be it from me to humiliate you — in fact I shall praise you.”

304-309Enlil answered Summer and Winter: “Winter is controller of the life-giving waters of all the lands — the farmer of the gods produces everything. Summer, my son, how can you compare yourself to your brother Winter?” The import of the exalted word Enlil speaks is artfully wrought, the verdict he pronounces is one which cannot be altered — who can change it?

310-315Summer bowed to Winter and offered him a prayer. In his house he prepared emmer-beer and wine. At its side they spend the day at a succulent banquet. Summer presents Winter with gold, silver and lapis lazuli. They pour out brotherhood and friendship like best oil. By bringing sweet words to the quarrel (?) they have achieved harmony with each other.

316-318In the dispute between Summer and Winter, Winter, the faithful farmer of Enlil, was superior to Summer — praise be to the Great Mountain, father Enlil!

Sumerian Texts

The debate between Sheep and Grain

1-11When, upon the hill of heaven and earth, An spawned the Anuna gods, since he neither spawned nor created Grain with them, and since in the Land he neither fashioned the yarn of Uttu (the goddess of weaving) nor pegged out the loom for Uttu — with no Sheep appearing, there were no numerous lambs, and with no goats, there were no numerous kids, the sheep did not give birth to her twin lambs, and the goat did not give birth to her triplet kids; the Anuna, the great gods, did not even know the names Ezina-Kusu (Grain) or Sheep.

12-25There was no muc grain of thirty days; there was no muc grain of forty days; there was no muc grain of fifty days; there was no small grain, grain from the mountains or grain from the holy habitations. There was no cloth to wear; Uttu had not been born — no royal turban was worn; lord Nijir-si, the precious lord, had not been born; Cakkan (the god of wild animals) had not gone out into the barren lands. The people of those days did not know about eating bread. They did not know about wearing clothes; they went about with naked limbs in the Land. Like sheep they ate grass with their mouths and drank water from the ditches.

26-36At that time, at the place of the gods’ formation, in their own home, on the Holy Mound, they created Sheep and Grain. Having gathered them in the divine banqueting chamber, the Anuna gods of the Holy Mound partook of the bounty of Sheep and Grain but were not sated; the Anuna gods of the Holy Mound partook of the sweet milk of their holy sheepfold but were not sated. For their own well-being in the holy sheepfold, they gave them to mankind as sustenance.

37-42At that time Enki spoke to Enlil: “Father Enlil, now Sheep and Grain have been created on the Holy Mound, let us send them down from the Holy Mound.” Enki and Enlil, having spoken their holy word, sent Sheep and Grain down from the Holy Mound.

43-53Sheep being fenced in by her sheepfold, they gave her grass and herbs generously. For Grain they made her field and gave her the plough, yoke and team. Sheep standing in her sheepfold was a shepherd of the sheepfolds brimming with charm. Grain standing in her furrow was a beautiful girl radiating charm; lifting her raised head up from the field she was suffused with the bounty of heaven. Sheep and Grain had a radiant appearance.

54-64They brought wealth to the assembly. They brought sustenance to the Land. They fulfilled the ordinances of the gods. They filled the store-rooms of the Land with stock. The barns of the Land were heavy with them. When they entered the homes of the poor who crouch in the dust they brought wealth. Both of them, wherever they directed their steps, added to the riches of the household with their weight. Where they stood, they were satisfying; where they settled, they were seemly. They gladdened the heart of An and the heart of Enlil.

65-70They drank sweet wine, they enjoyed sweet beer. When they had drunk sweet wine and enjoyed sweet beer, they started a quarrel concerning the arable fields, they began a debate in the dining hall.

71-82Grain called out to Sheep: “Sister, I am your better; I take precedence over you. I am the glory of the lights of the Land. I grant my power to the sajursaj (a member of the cultic personnel of Inana) — he fills the palace with awe and people spread his fame to the borders of the Land. I am the gift of the Anuna gods. I am central to all princes. After I have conferred my power on the warrior, when he goes to war he knows no fear, he knows no faltering (?) — I make him leave …… as if to the playing field.

83-91″I foster neighbourliness and friendliness. I sort out quarrels started between neighbours. When I come upon a captive youth and give him his destiny, he forgets his despondent heart and I release his fetters and shackles. I am Ezina-Kusu (Grain) ; I am Enlil’s daughter. In sheep shacks and milking pens scattered on the high plain, what can you put against me? Answer me what you can reply!”

92-101Thereupon Sheep answered Grain: “My sister, whatever are you saying? An, king of the gods, made me descend from the holy place, my most precious place. All the yarns of Uttu, the splendour of kingship, belong to me. Cakkan, king of the mountain, embosses the king’s emblems and puts his implements in order. He twists a giant rope against the great peaks of the rebel land. He …… the sling, the quiver and the longbows.

102-106″The watch over the elite troops is mine. Sustenance of the workers in the field is mine: the waterskin of cool water and the sandals are mine. Sweet oil, the fragrance of the gods, mixed (?) oil, pressed oil, aromatic oil, cedar oil for offerings are mine.

107-115″In the gown, my cloth of white wool, the king rejoices on his throne. My body glistens on the flesh of the great gods. After the purification priests, the incantation priests and the bathed priests have dressed themselves in me for my holy lustration, I walk with them to my holy meal. But your harrow, ploughshare, binding and strap are tools that can be utterly destroyed. What can you put against me? Answer me what you can reply!”

116-122Again Grain addressed Sheep: “When the beer dough has been carefully prepared in the oven, and the mash tended in the oven, Ninkasi (the goddess of beer) mixes them for me while your big billy-goats and rams are despatched for my banquets. On their thick legs they are made to stand separate from my produce.

123-129″Your shepherd on the high plain eyes my produce enviously; when I am standing in the furrow in the field, my farmer chases away your herdsman with his cudgel. Even when they look out for you, from the open country to the hidden places, your fears are not removed from you: fanged (?) snakes and bandits, the creatures of the desert, want your life on the high plain.

130-142″Every night your count is made and your tally-stick put into the ground, so your herdsman can tell people how many ewes there are and how many young lambs, and how many goats and how many young kids. When gentle winds blow through the city and strong winds scatter, they build a milking pen for you; but when gentle winds blow through the city and strong winds scatter, I stand up as an equal to Ickur (the god of storms) . I am Grain, I am born for the warrior — I do not give up. The churn, the vat on legs (?), the adornments of shepherding, make up your properties. What can you put against me? Answer me what you can reply!”

143-155Again Sheep answered Grain: “You, like holy Inana of heaven, love horses. When a banished enemy, a slave from the mountains or a labourer with a poor wife and small children comes, bound with his rope of one cubit, to the threshing-floor or is taken away from (?) the threshing-floor, when his cudgel pounds your face, pounds your mouth, as a pestle (?) …… your ears (?) ……. and you are …… around by the south wind and the north wind. The mortar ……. As if it were pumice (?) it makes your body into flour.

156-168″When you fill the trough the baker’s assistant mixes you and throws you on the floor, and the baker’s girl flattens you out broadly. You are put into the oven and you are taken out of the oven. When you are put on the table I am before you — you are behind me. Grain, heed yourself! You too, just like me, are meant to be eaten. At the inspection of your essence, why should it be I who come second? Is the miller not evil? What can you put against me? Answer me what you can reply!”

169-179Then Grain was hurt in her pride, and hastened for the verdict. Grain answered Sheep: “As for you, Ickur is your master, Cakkan your herdsman, and the dry land your bed. Like fire beaten down (?) in houses and in fields, like small flying birds chased from the door of a house, you are turned into the lame and the weak of the Land. Should I really bow my neck before you? You are distributed into various measuring-containers. When your innards are taken away by the people in the market-place, and when your neck is wrapped with your very own loincloth, one man says to another: “Fill the measuring-container with grain for my ewe!”.”

180-191Then Enki spoke to Enlil: “Father Enlil, Sheep and Grain should be sisters! They should stand together! Of their threefold metal …… shall not cease. But of the two, Grain shall be the greater. Let Sheep fall on her knees before Grain. Let her kiss the feet of ……. From sunrise till sunset, may the name of Grain be praised. People should submit to the yoke of Grain. Whoever has silver, whoever has jewels, whoever has cattle, whoever has sheep shall take a seat at the gate of whoever has grain, and pass his time there.”

192-193Dispute spoken between Sheep and Grain: Sheep is left behind and Grain comes forward — praise be to father Enki!